When the Japanese took control of Taiwan, they regarded it as an economic colony. At the time, water resources on the Chianan Plain (嘉南平原) were lacking and much of the land was left uncultivated. The farmers of the area also faced frequent droughts and floods.
The Japanese formed the Public Chianan Irrigation Channel Cooperative Office(公共埤圳嘉南大圳組合事務所) to build the Chianan Irrigation Channel(嘉南大圳) and thus solve irrigation problem on the Chianan Plain. Originally located in Chiayi Street in Chiayi County, it moved to the prefectural office in Tainan in 1909. Due to expansion in business, new premises were built for the Office at its present site in 1940.